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K31 Road Engineering

Which Steps to be Considered in the Design Process of a Road?

 1. Road traffic (Baseline flow as well as forecast).

2. Material as well as geotechnical details (Field study and also material residential or commercial properties).

3. Subgrade (Classification, foundation for extensive dirt and material toughness).

4. Thickness style (Gravel putting on crude density).

5. Products layout.


An essential consideration in the design of crushed rock roads is to make sure all-weather gain access to them. This requirement places particular emphasis on the need for the adequate bearing capability of the pavement framework as well as provision of water drainage and enough earthworks in flooding or issues soil areas (e.g. black cotton).


The performance of the gravel surface area mostly depends upon worldly top quality, the area of the roadway, and also the quantity of website traffic using the roadway. Crushed rock roads passing through inhabited areas in particular call for materials that do not generate extreme dirt is completely dry weather conditions.

Steep gradients place certain demands on gravel putting on training course products; this needs to not become unsafe in wet climates or deteriorate quickly. Consideration should therefore be offered to the kind of crushed rock using training course material to be utilized particularly areas such as communities or high areas.

Crushed rock loss prices of about 25-30mm thickness a year per 100 cars each day is. expected, depending on rainfall and also products residential or commercial properties (particularly plasticity).

Performance attributes that will assist in identifying suitable products are received.


The product demands for the gravel putting on course consist of an arrangement of a crushed rock surface that is effectively maintainable. Adherence to the limits on huge bits in the material is of certain importance in this regard and will normally demand making use of crushing or screening devices during product production activities.

Design Method

The called for crushed rock thickness shall be established as complies with.

1. Figure out the minimal thickness required to prevent too much compressive stress in the subgrade.

2. Establish the extra density required to make up for the crushed rock loss under website traffic during the period between regravelling procedures).

3. Identify the overall gravel thickness required by adding the above two thicknesses.


It is necessary to limit the compressive strain in the subgrade to prevent extreme irreversible.

contortion at the surface area of the road.Figure 3 gives the minimal gravel density needed.

for each web traffic category with the needed density of improved subgrade materials for the top as well as reduced subgrade layers.


According to TRL Laboratory Report 673, an estimate of the yearly gravel loss is provided by.

the list below equation:

GL = f T2/ (T2 + 50) (4.2 + 0.092 T + 3.50 R2 + 1.88 V).


GL = the yearly crushed rock loss determined in mm.

T = the overall traffic quantity in the very first year in both instructions, determined in.

hundreds of automobiles.

R = the ordinary annual rains measured in m.

V = the overall (surge + autumn) as a percentage of the length of the roadway.

f = 0.94 to 1.29 for lateritic gravels.

= 1.1 to 1.51 for quartizitic gravels.

= 0.7 to 0.96 for volcanic crushed rocks (weather-beaten lava or tuff).

= 1.5 for reefs crushed rocks.

= 1.38 for sandstone gravels.


The wearing program of a brand-new gravel road shall have a thickness D determined from:.

D = D1 + N. GL.

Where D1 is the minimum density.

N is the period between regravelling procedures in years.

GL is the yearly crushed rock loss.

Regravelling operations should be configured to guarantee that the actual gravel density.

never ever falls below the minimal thickness D1.

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